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Socrates argues that language in its best and most effective expression does, in naming, "show what each thing is like": In this view, it is the kinesis of articulatory movements, rather than the acoustic product, upon which the " meaning" of individual sounds is based. Indeed, those sounds whose articulations are expressive in them selves, notably most of the ones singled out by Plato r, i, s, z, 1, g , are the ones whose semantic interpretation tends to produce agreement Ganecek Socrates therefore finds some objective basis for Cratylus' position.
In tae Russian sphere, the first to speak about the emotional quali ties of specific sounds seems to have been the great classic poet M. Lomonosov in his "Short Guide to Eloquence" [Kratkoe rukovodstvo k krasnorechiyu, , where he ascribes emotional quali ties to the vowels and consonants.
For example, the vowels e, i, jat', and yu are suitable "for the depiction of tenderness, affection, sad or small things," whereas o, u, and y are for " frightening and strong things: The only statement by a Russian Symbolist that Shklovsky men tions is by Vyacheslav Ivanov on Pushkin's "The Gypsies," in which Ivanov discusses the prevalence of the vowel u "now muffled and pen 18 Zaum: The Transrational Poetry of Russian Fu turism 8 sive, receding into the distant past, now colorful and wild, now sultry and evocatively melancholy" As with Plato, Ivanov sees imitation mimesis as " an indispensable ingredient of artistic creativ ity": Bu t in fact Andrey Bely in his important and controversial book Symbolism Simvolizm, a also addresses issues relevant to poetic language and zaum.
In one of its articles, "The Magic of Words"  "Magiya slav" a: For Bel y the word is a theurgical conjuring mechanism based on sound: But every word is a sound before it is anything else. For in sound there is recreated a new world within whose boundaries I feel myself to be the creator of reality. And by creating this sound, it is as if I were beginning to recreate thunder itself.
At the same time, it opens new vistas: The goal of living communication is a striving toward the future. This is why abstract words, when they become signs of communication, cause communication between people to revert to something that has already existed in the past. When we hear living, imaginal speech, on the other hand, it kindles our imagination with the fire of new creations, that is, with the fires of new word constructions.
A word bursting out of its previous usage is a sign of life, like a seed bursting out of its hull, and this requires a certain violence, playful ness, a "healthy barbarism": He points to Knut Hamsun's novel Hunger, where the herp imagines a girl with the name Ylayali and is haunted by the meaning less word " kuboaa," an example also pointed out by Shklovsky 19 In troduction: Definitions and Background Shkl ov sky notes 9 that the word is attractive to the novel's hero precisely because he can make it mean whatever he wants.
Bely then refers to "the theory of a certain Frenchman" unidentified in which the vowels refer to spiritual actions, the consonants m, l, v, f others t, d, s serve as connecti ng links b etw een the two realms Bely a: Kite rman maintains that i n addition to a lo gi cal and ps ycholo gi c al me an i n g, the word also has a "powerful" emotional factor to be con sidered in it. He identifies three major sources of this emotional im pact. The first is sound: In this area there are three main modes.
Some words are onomatopoetic; that is, they attempt to duplicate natural sounds, and refer to matter, and their impact is dependent solely on their external form, their sound composition.
And then there are " associations" connected with sound combinations he gives the exa mple from Bourdon that the sounds jaja and zaza are sug-' gestive of tender nes s and affection to the French , but Kiterman points out that such associations "are to a significant deg re e dependent for their development on the sound forms themselves": Presum ably, because words with the associated meaning already have those them, the relationship is therefore recipr o cal.
In the first area of emotional i mpa ct, Kiterman identifies two paths of action: Thus acoustic pro pe rties, oral a rtic ula tion, and emo tional import are effec tively united. Kiterman maintains that speech sounds are as much sounds as are musical tones and have a similar capacity to p rod u ce a "ne u ro - ps ych ic respo n se. The third factor is the emotional impact of the object or phenomenon referred to by the given word.
Additional theoretical support in this area is mustered by Shklovsky's reference to au rice Grammont's book, Le vers francais, sounds in 20 10 Zaum: The Transrational Poetry of Russian Futurism ses moyens d'expression, son harmonie [2nd ed.
Shklovsky simply says that the author "concluded that each sound evokes its specific emotions or range of emotions": Although Grammont richly illus trates this point, we should not miss a note of circumspection that Shklovsky does not repeat, though it was contained in the Russian trans lation of Grammont's introduction which appeared in the same issue of Poetika: Shklovsky filled his article with examples of situations where or dinary people, as well as poets, respond to the sounds of words above and beyond their meaning, even when the meaning itself is unknown or unimportant to the person involved.
He refers to Mr. Goncharov in the same work notes that simple people are "moved to tears by holy books in Church Slavonic although they understand nothing or only understand' other words' like my Valentin," and that sailors would sit listening for hours enraptured by similar readings as long as they were read sonorously.
Chckhov in "The Peasants" likewise describes old peasant women being brought to tears by Church Slavonic words ashche [if] and dondezhe [until]. Vyazemsky as a child enjoyed going to the wine cellar to read the euphonious names on the labels and par ticularly liked the name Lacrima Christi.
We have already quoted Schiller to the effect that the lyric impulse usually came first in th e form of inchoate sounds, of "sound patches not formed into words" Shklovsky Shklovsky describes the process of transforma tion as follows: Definitions and Backgroun d 11 Sometimes th e patch approaches, sometimes it recedes, then finally it be comes clear and coincides with a sonorous word. The poet does not de cide to speak a " trans-sensible word"; usually the trans-sensibility con ceals itself under the mask of some often-deceptive apparent content so that poets themselves have to admit that they do not understand the con tent of their own verses.
He concludes his article with a prophecy by the Pol ish Romantic p o e t Juli u s z Sfowacki to the effect that poets will one day write poetry o nly for the sake of the sounds: No ti ng that poets do not complain about mediating concepts or images with words, Shklovsky points out: And not for nothing do they complain that they cannot me d i ate sounds with words": There are assumed to be non-verbal "thoughts" which cannot be converted into an adequate.
This idea is echoed by other Russian poets besides Lermontov, s u c h as V. Zhukovsky , " Nevyrazimoe Otryvok "  , A. Fet , "Kak moshki zaryoyu" [ ] , F. Ty u tchev , "Silentium" [ , and S. Nadson , " Mily drug, ya znayu" . Nadson's lines about "suffering over the word" from this la s t poem enter the d isc ussion as an epigraph and title to an artic le by A. Gornfeld first published in ["Muki slova"]! Gornfeld' s article focuses o n the reasons for these creative torments. In hi s first section, he surveys various writ ers' statements - referring to or quoting, in addition to the above po ems by Lermontov, Tyutchev, and Fet, similar remarks by Pi se msky, Odoevsky, Kireevsky, K.
Tolstoy, Golenishchev-Ku tuzov, Merezhkovsky, Lvov, Apollo of Corinth, Sully-Prudhomme, Goethe, Dostoevsky, and Gleb Uspensky, or their heroes - on the problem of finding an adequate verbal expression for their tho u ghts. The word " thought" here refers to a mental gray area in which something has been formed definite enough that it can be called a "thought," but not definite enough to have acquired a satisfac tory verbal expression.
Mysl' generally corresponds to th e words 22 12 Zaum: The Transrational Poetry of Russian Futurism "thought" or " idea" in English, if you allow enough latitude in both Russian and English for ideas that may be inchoate, pre-verbal, or non-verbal.
As Dal defines it, however, it is "any unitary action of the mind, reason, intellect [ uma, razuma, razsudka], a representation of what is in the mind; an idea" An etymologically related word is smysl, which can be translated as "meaning, sense, purport" and is the Russian word used in the phrase " common sense.
Mysl' floats somewhere between or outside them and at times even seems to be a synonym for zaum. Nevertheless, its down-to-earth translation will consistently be "a thought. The former may be one of the five "senses," but it is also akin to "emotion," while the latter is close to the idea of "perception, impression.
Gornfeld points out that " our whole system of Schellingism is satu rated with thoughts about the inexpressible": At ap proximately the same time as Odoevsky in his Russian Nights , Ivan Kireevsky was also, as Gornfeld puts it, "defending the right to 'hyperlogical' cognition [giperlogicheskoe poznanie]": In the typical situation, the poet is experiencing a new sensation. Such a view places the poet at the vanguard of human experience and innovation. The struggle with one's material and with the cliches of one's artform leads to the creation of new, if still inadequate, forms of expression and embodiments of new, if still inadequately expressed, thoughts: In the latter part of his essay, Gornfeld red efines mysl' to give it a more explicit relationship with the word [slovo]: He recognizes the two usual sides in the dispute on this issue, in which some say that a perfectly clear insight may not be able to be converted into words, while others insist that if something is clearly u nderstood it can be - - 23 In troduction: Definitions and Background 13 clearly expressed.
Rather, he says, "the truth is somewhat to the side of these two extremes; complete clarity is a concept that is rather indefi nite [neopredelennoe] and relative": Gomfeld d iscusses the fact that many poets do not in fact wish to be perfectly clear in their expression, recognizing that apparent clarity is an illusion which, at the very least, destroys the sense of newness and mystery that is part of their original vision.
In the final analysis, Gornfeld remains conservative, rejecting be fore the fact, as he will after the fact see Ch. The Futurists would take this as a challenge: They would not feel that they were l i mited to " mund ane expressions," as G oethe was Gornfeld: Batyushkov , "Struggle with the Word" , published in the major Journal of the Ministry of Educa tion, presumably required professional reading for a broad spectrum of Russian ed ucated society.
Baty ushkov generally agrees with Gornfeld's views, but provides several correctives. He thinks, first of all, that Gornfeld too closely equates thought and language, or, in other words, content and form: Batyushkov points out that the ab stract ideal in which a word will have a single, fixed, uniformly ac cepted meaning is unattainable in living languages, which will always depart from the initial concrete meaning [smysl] of that " sound image" which we call a word.
Furthermore, there is no direct connection between a word and its significance [znachenie], with the ex ception of that small group of so-called onomatopoetic words When a new concept is established, a word in its old significance [znachenie] may even turn out to be a hindrance to thought, and language also can be such a hindrance if it corresponds to a definite, known content and is not adapt able to the expression of a new content.
On the nature and goals of poetic language, Batyushkov also has a different emphasis. The Transrational Poetry of Russian Fu turism 14 emotional response in the reader: This is the highest stage of its evolution": The discussion on the nature of poetic expression would appear to be fairly heated for another view see Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky lb, esp.: Batyushkov reports, for instance, someone's reaction that Gomfeld was giving too much credence to poets' statements about the difficulty of expressing their thoughts, that the poets were exaggerat ing as a pose so as to make the process seem more difficult than it was and thus to make themselves seem more important: While Gomfeld, in a later essay written when zaum was already on the hori zon, expresses impatience with lack of clarity, particularly if it is delib erate The roots of this em phasis are to be found in Wilhelm von Humboldt's theories and their elaboration by Potebnya and others in the Russian context..
Shklovsky makes only passing reference to the work of the literary critic A. The role of the last el emen t [the text] could be considered in the beginning the most modest: From this kernel a text with co nt ent d eve lo ped in the sl ow course of history; thus e ven in the p rime v a l word the emotional el em ent of the voice and movement ges ture supported the element of content, which i na d equa tely expressed the impression of the obj ec t; a fuller expression of the con ten t would result from the d evel opment of the sentence.
Definitions and Background 15 In this primitive condition of "syncretism," as Vese l ovsky called it, verbal, musical, and kinetic components were not clearly distin g u ished, but formed an undifferentiated whole.
What might o ri g i n a lly have been an invol u nta ry e mo t iona l response to an external stimulus becomes repeated, ritualized, and gi v en a rh y thmic form as a way of dealing with or defusin g the i nten s i ty of strong emo tional experiences. Only g radual ly do the components of this syncretic whole develop autonomy and in dep endent form. So it is uncl ea r to Shklovsky whether poetry e me rged first as a formalization of inarticu late vocal exclamations, or l a n gu a ge emer ged first and was then fo r malized into poetic works.
Shkl ov sk y also refers to the theories of the German psychophysi olo g ist Wilhelm Wundt , especi al ly to what Wundt called Lautbilder sound-pictures: Under this term Wundt groups words which express not an a c ou sti c, but or other notion, but in s u ch a way that between this no tion and the choice of sou n ds of onomatopoetic w ords a certain corre spo n d ence is felt.
In German, for examp l e, timmeln torkeln to stagger and rather a n o p ti cal in Russian karakuli badly written, smudged words. Prev iously, such words would have been expl a i ne d thus: But Wundt p rin c ipa lly expla ins the phenomenon thus: Wundt' s theories and w ri t ings were a c ti v ely discussed in Russian circles at the tum of the century, and some writers in the p reviou s section refer to him Kiterman: However, it is the articles by the Polish-Russian c la ss i cal scholar and p o p ul a ri zer, F.
Zelinsky which form the ba sis of Shklovsky's own comments. Zelinsky's experiment is interesting: Is there a similarity between the articulatory movement of the word tifisnut' and the movement of a knife sli d ing over 26 16 Zaum: The Transrational Poetry of Russian Fu turism and cutting into the human body? No, but this articulatory motion de scribes as well as possible every instinctive state of the facial muscles dur ing the specific feeling of pain in the nerves experienced by us when we imagine a knife sliding along the skin but not stuck into the body ; the lips are rigidly drawn apart, the throat constricted, the teeth gritted; this permits the use of only the vowel i and the tongue consonants t, I, s, whereby the selection of them and not of the voiced sounds d, r, z in volves a certain sound-imitating element.
Consequently Zelinsky defines sound pictures as words whose articulation requires the general mimicry of the face in order for these words to express the feeling evoked F.
Zelinsky's article is a detailed, laudatory survey of the main ideas in the first volume of Wundt's V6lkerpsychologie, Die Sprache [, 2nd ed. After putting the subject in a historical context for the general Russian reader in which he mentions H u mboldt, Schleicher, Steinthal, Lazarus, and Paul Zelinsky: In his first three chapters, which Zelinsky finds to be " the most original": E x p ressive Movements Ausdrucksbewegungen , 2.
The Language of Gestures Gebiirdensprache , and 3. Expressive Sounds Sprachlau te. Expressive movements can be divided into three groups: Affects can be divided into two elements, feelings [chuvstva] and ideas [predstavleniya], and the former into two aspects, sensation [oshchushchenie], which is neu tral, and feeling [here we would probably prefer " emotion" in English], which is an accompanying evaluative reaction to the sensation, whether positive or negative.
Sensation is quantitative, while feeling is qualita tive. Ideas also accompany affects, " are lasting and produce a sense of the fact which caused the affect": These three aspects of affect sensation, feeling, idea correspond to the three types of movement internal, mimetic, and pantomimic. Every sensation [stimulus] pro duces a change in internal state increased or decreased pulse, more or less rapid breathing, etc.
Out of these can be created a "language of gestures," but for this an intention to commun ica te is essential. Definitions and Background 17 Zelinsky digresses briefly o n theories of "expressive movements" in Spencer and Darwin. The most delicate muscles those of the face respond most readily. On the other hand, some of these miscellaneous movements serve to satisfy the affect e. Wundt, however, insists that expressive movements are not purely physical, but psychophysical: In fact, any at tempt to explain psychological phenomena in physical terms has a mi raculous leap of human development hidden in it.
Automatic movements can be subdivided into two subcategories, reflex movements and accompanying movements Mitbewegungen: It is on the latter that the psychology of language is based. Thus an unpleasant taste produces central movements of the mouth designed to eliminate the bad stimulus and additional movements of the nearby facial muscles which have an expressive capacity.
The same is true of pantomimic motions of the whole body. And such expressive movements not only express an affect; they can actually produce it in the absence of an actual stimulus, since they are so closely associated with it to begin with see also William James below.
The language of gestures has as its purpose to communicate with another. A person under the influence of an affect does not experience a desire to communicate, but is in the grip of the affect itself.
Only after it has loosed its hold to a significant extent does the desire to commu nicate it arise. Zelinsky points out that 28 18 Zaum: Th e Transrational Poetry of Russian Fu turism pantomimic movements serve to express ideas, while internal and mi metic movements express feelings; thus the initial basis of the language of gestures lies in ideas, the basis of the language of sounds - in feelings.
I must note that this parallelism is not drawn by Wundt himself, but is a natural conclusion from his theory, and a conclusion, I think, of some in terest and importance.
There are three categories of animal sounds on three succes sive levels of development: In humans, the first developed into song, while the second is the basis for language in which articulation "initially expressed only feelings and in particular their qualities, as opposed to tone, which expressed their intensity; yet there is no doubt that in human speech it expresses precisely ideas, where the expresser of feelings to their full extent is ' the voice,' i.
Finally we come to the Lau tbilder mentioned by Shklovsky. These are elements of developed language which are neither exclamations i. In Wundt's opinion, sound imitations and sound pictures together constitute one cat egory, and he develops a special original and interesting theory about them. This observation leads to a key statement: Definitions and Background 19 This skill has become so solidified that, in thinking about a word, we do not at all think about its articulation; but nevertheless it is the direct re sult of enervation of the motor nerves.
The sonic physiognomy of the word is merely a consequence of its articulation. This articulatory movement of the tongue and lips belongs without doubt to the mimetic movements; as the mimetic gesture develops in general from mimetic movements, so a special sound gesture develops from articulatory movements. Now it is easy for us to apply to this denominator both sound imitations and sound pictures: Once one accepts this theory, the area of expressive sounds and their progeny in language is significantly broadened; it is broadened still more by adding related phenomena, which Wundt calls "sound metaphors.
One can relate this to such correlates as kryaknu t' [quack, grunt] and kriknut' [cry, shout], but they are not the stron gest element: It has long been noted that in the huge majority of languages the names otets [father] and ma [mother] form correlates in which the hard, explosive sounds in the name for father t, r and related sounds correspond to the soft, nasal sound in the name for mother n, m. T]here is the possibility of imagining a language or series of languages which consist exclusively of sound pictures or sound metaphors which would correspond to the simulatory and symbolic gestures of the optitic [sic] language developed above; gener ati ng from this language or these languages those we already know will become co m prehensible if we take into account the conditions of sound change [ Zelinsky then considers objections to this theory, several of which Wundt hi mself raises.
Wundt points out that sound imitations and sound pictures are usually found in relatively recent words and are relatively few in number in the total word pool of a language. Zelinsky hi mself has some additional objections. He finds Wundt's position that the sounds produced are merely the result of mimetic articulatory ges tures to be somewhat overstated and imprecise. For Z elinsky, mimetic move men ts are related not, as for Wundt, to the idea of a word, but rather " to the feelings which these ideas awakenjn us": Zelinsky further explains that, since ideas expressed by pantomimic gestures are automatically accompanied by mimetic facial movements, there is an interpenetration of the language of gestures into the language of words, and, while this link may be elusive, "nevertheless we have here no t a 'chance or arbitrary association,' but a completely natural and inevitable one": Perhaps the extracts quoted below will cast a slightly different light on the question.
We have literary evidence which does not merely give ex amples of sound-pictures but also allows us, as it were, to be present at their creation. It appears to us that the closest neighbors to onomatopoetic words are "words" without concept and content that serve to express pure emotion, that is, words which cannot be said to exhibit any imitative ar ticulation, for there is nothing to imitate, but only a concatenation of sounds and emotion - of a movement in which the hearer participates sympa thetically by reproducing a certain mute tensing of the speech organs.
Later in his article, Shklovsky makes brief reference to a book by the Petersburg actor-director-pedagogue Yuri Ozarovsky , The Music of the Living World , where Ozarovsky discusses his theory that " the timbre of the voice is dependent on mimicry" Shklovsky: Ozarovsky describes how, in while giving a course in mimicry at the Imperial Drama School using the method of F.
Del Sarte , he observed that the students, when asked to add phrases that seemed appropriate to the given mimetic movements or positions, said them with more " genuine timbre" than was usually the case d uring lessons in declamation: According to the theory he then developed, "Even the slightest word is a product of the brain, and the least tremor of soul found in the most elementary exclamation is not any longer just a pure emotion, but is also something from rea son, from thought the pure appearance of pure emotion is only mim icry ": This mimicry, by which he means the bodily state that automatically and involuntarily occurs in correspondence with an emotion, produces changes in the disposition of the speech apparatus, which in turn produces subtle but significant changes in the timbre of the voice.
James' apparently paradoxical thesis was originally stated in his Psychology, Briefer Course His point is that the nervous system and physical reflexes involuntarily react to stimuli immediately, producing bodily changes, while the mind may perceive the reason for these changes only moments later if at all. In 31 In troduction: Definitions and Background 21 other words, radically stated i n James' terms, " the emotion here is noth ing but the feeling of a bodily state, and it has a purely bodily cause": Furthermore, " a disembodied human emotion is a sheer nonen tity": In other words, the bodily state is not an expres sion of the emotion, but the reverse.
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The T ransrational Poetry of Russian Futurism
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A similar example occurs in Blok's translation of Rutebeuf's medi ev al play "Le Miracle de Theophile" in the scene where Saladin sum mons the devil with the incantation: Membuang rasa segan dan rekan rekan kerja hanya mengubah hidupnya.
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